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PHAIDRA – Digital collections

Digitisation: standards landscape for European museums, archives, libraries

Digitisation: standards landscape for European museums, archives, libraries


An overview of the different standards which are in use with the partners in the ATHENA project. Its content results from the information provided from the more than 20 partners
from ATHENA coming from museums,
libraries and archives, as well as ministries.
Edited by ATHENA WP3 Working Group “Identifying standards and developing recommendations”

Table of contents

1. Some basic concepts
1.1 Standard
1.1.1. Types of standards
1.1.2 Open standards
1.2 Digitisation
1.3 Interoperability
1.4 Metadata
1.4.1 Definition difficulties
1.4.2 Aspects of metadata
1.4.3 A ‘better’ definition?
2. Standards landscape
2.1 Describing standards
2.2 Information schemes (metadata)
2.2.1 Museum specific
2.2.2 Archive specific
2.2.3 Library specific
2.2.4 Historic environment specific
2.2.5 General heritage
2.2.6 Resource discovery
2.2.7 Document encoding
2.3 Multimedia formats
2.3.1 Text
2.3.2 Image
2.3.3 Audio
2.3.4 Video
2.3.5 Virtual reality
2.3.6 Vector graphics
2.4 Other technical standards
2.4.1 Search and retrieval
2.4.2 Transmission
2.4.3 Character encoding
3. Conclusions
3.1 Cultural metadata standards
3.2 Technical standards
4. Standards index






application/pdf (296.75 kB)


• standards, digitisation, metadata, museum, archive, library, formats
• EuroVoc 4.2 -- EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATIONS (D32) -- information and information processing (MT3231)

Object languages:



• Mckenna, Gordon, et al., Digitisation: standards landscape for European museums, archives, libraries, ATNENA, 2009-10-01, 110 p..


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Italy License.

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